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Article by Pankaj Nagpal
Heart valve disease :
Heart valve disease is also called as Valvular Heart Disease.The heart has two halves, a left and right each with 2chambers the atrium and the ventricle. Between the chambers are the heart valves which ensure the blood runs only in one direction. Heart valves separate the ventricle and the atrium chambers. On the right side of the heart called tricuspid valve and on the left side the mitral valve. There are also valves on each side between the heart and the major blood vessel taking blood away from the heart on the right this is pulmonary valve. On the left between the left ventricle and the aorta is aortic valve. Heart valves are made up of caps of thin, strong tissue attached to the heart with fibrous cords. They can open only in one direction.
Causes of Heart Valve Disease
They may be due to :
Congenital abnormality-means a person borns with an abnormal valveDegeneration through atherosclerosis(aortic stenosis only)Damage from Rheumatic feverExcessive calcification in old age (aortic stenosis only)Bacterial infection or inflammation of a valve Excessive floppiness of the leaflets(mitral valve prolapse)Enlargement of the heart or aorta-the main blood vessel into which the left ventricle pumps.
Diagnosis of Heart Valve Disease
These may include :
Echocardiography-An echocardiography is a test that shows the hearts movement. Transesophegeal Echocardiography: This test requires that the transducer be inserted down the throat into the esophagus(the swallowing tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) because the esophagus is located close to the heart clear images of the heart structures can be obtained without the interference of the lungs and chest. Cardiac Catherization (Angiogram) during this test a long narrow tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in your arm or leg guided to your heart with the aid to a special x-ray machine. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter so that x-ray movies of your valves coronary arteries and heart chambers can be created.Radionuclide scans.Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)Chest X-RayECG which records the electrical changes happening in your heart.
Treatment of Heart Valve Disease
Diuretics-Remove extra fluid from the tissues and blood stream, lesson the symptoms of heart failureAntirrythmic medicines-control the hearts rhythmACE Inhibitors -which help the heart, work more effectively by relaxing blood vessels and so improving blood flow.Digoxin-which stabilizes the heart rhythm and helps the heart pump harderBeta Blockers treat high blood pressure and lesson the hearts work by helping the heart beat slower and less forcefully. Used to decrease palpitation in some patients.
Surgery For Heart Valve Disease :
If your valve has narrowed (stenosis) your doctor may recommend balloon valve surgery called balloon valvoplasty. Reshaping of the valve ring by removing excess valve tissue Adding support to the valve ring by adding tissue or a collar like structure around the base of the valve. Attaching the valve to nearby heart cordlike tissues (chordal transposition) for a valve repair the procedure performed will depend on the type of valve problems that exist.eg: separation of fused valve leaflets, repair of torn leaflets and/or reshaping of the parts to ensure better function.
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