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Article by Dew Drops
RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 1 PATIENT IN 2 SPORTS WAIVER AND DOES NOT SLEEP – Health – Wellness
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Good humor and clear nights goodbye when you’re struck by a rheumatic disease: more than 50% of patients it was found impossible to carry out any physical activity, 43% report the inability to sleep or rest properly, 25% to dressing themselves, 38% indicates an inability to perform household chores and 31% to take care of family needs. And ‘what emerges from the study Rhapsody (The quality of life and the needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis), whose data were presented today in Rome during a conference stampa. Sono about 400 000 Italians with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, 700 000, or those with spondylitis.
And for them are also dramatic psychological impact: 63% of patients feel depressed for acquired disability, unable to do what he did before his illness, 57% are forced to live with anxiety and / or depression, 39% has increased its level of irritability, 21% had problems in his sexual life. If the disease affects basic needs, the same survey tells us that the great chance to maintain their normal life is now entrusted to biological therapies: almost all patients (94%) believe that biological drugs are more effective than conventional to improve the quality of life and ability to perform everyday tasks.
Specifically, according to the patients, biological therapy slows the progression of the disease (97%), limits the progress of joint deformity (96%), and ensures long-term relief (95%), results in fewer relapses (93%), reduces pain and swelling (91%). In addition, the number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who manages to have more than 15 ‘good days’, ie those over a month, in which patients can get up without pain, after passing from the biological therapies 16 (7 %) to 145 (66%) compared to an increase in only 12 (11%) to 38 (41%) recorded in the number of patients in conventional therapy. In ankylosing spondylitis the benefit of the organic is even greater: 78% of patients report having more than 15 ‘good days’ with treatment, compared to only 26.8% in patients treated with conventional drugs.
The biological therapies have so changed the history of rheumatic diseases, ensuring high levels of efficacy and safety. But even in the context of biological therapies are still areas of dissatisfaction, mainly related to the mode of administration. These requests answered by the biological generation as a human monoclonal antibody golimumab, which allows patients to overcome the discomfort of injection, due to the possibility of subcutaneous administration on the same day of each month. Treatment with SIMPONI is further simplified by using a metered injector, specially designed for patients suffering from rheumatic joint impairment, frequently in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.
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On Ankylosis, Or, Stiff-joint: A Practical Treatise On The Contractions And Deformities Resulting From Diseases Of Joints
On Ankylosis, Or, Stiff-joint: A Practical Treatise On The Contractions And Deformities Resulting From Diseases Of Joints
This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of t
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Article by Deepti Man
The spine is the column of bones called vertebrae. This column is to protect your spinal cord. The importance of spine is well known. It provides support for your body as muscles are attached to it. Also, it provides the overall shape to your body. However, there are lots of people who face problems with their spine. Any type of pain that will be associated to your spine may be because of a serious disease of spine. So, you must never take this pain lightly as things can become worse if you will practice carelessness.
When it comes to spinal diseases, you can feel pain because of several reasons. For instance, if you are having a low back pain, then it may be because of lumbosacral muscle strain which can lead to disability in some cases. In this condition, a person will usually feel better with rest. However, low back pain may be because of other spinal conditions.
Lumbar disc herniation is another condition which may be contributing towards increasing your low back pain. If you will be having back pain because of lumbar disc herniation, you will feel more pain while sitting. Spinal stenosis is another reason behind the low back pain. When it comes to spinal stenosis, you can actually feel pain in different sections or regions of your spine. Actually, spinal stenosis is a situation where your nerves get pressed which means that you can feel pain in different parts of your body.
So, it can really be a confusing situation to deal with. As this pain is because of the pressure on nerves, so, you will feel a bit relieved while sitting as the space between the vertebrae becomes increased. It is bit different from herniated disk as there a disk will slip out of its place to press a nerve. Apart from these abovementioned problems, low back pain may be because of vertebral fracture, spondylolisthesis or because of simple inflammation.
Here, it is also essential to mention that pain in back or spine may be because of a tumor. Spinal cord tumors are caused by the high protein content. In most cases, this tumor can be removed, but, situation can get worse if you will not pay a sufficient attention to it. Speaking of spinal tumor, it is pertinent to mention that there are certain types of it. Bony tumors of the spinal column, Extra dural tumor, Intra dural extra medullary and Intra medullary tumors are the basic types of spinal tumors.
There are different methods that are used to deal with different tumors and spinal conditions. In most cases, people are treated with certain therapies. These therapies are used to remove pressure from certain nerves which get pressed because of different reasons. This can really help to relieve pain. However, the treatment will depend on the severity of the pain that you will be having. If its severity will be greater, then you may have to go for some surgical treatment to get out of the pain.
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Article by carl formby
There are many types of spine diseases and people suffering from any of them can be really laid down low. The most common of them is associated with lumbar pain which mainly affects the lower back and is caused by muscle strain or vascular problems or arthritis or a ruptured intervertebral disc. Spine surgery is usually the last resort after all other methods have become ineffective in alleviating the pain. Spine disease treatments can be non-surgical as well as surgical though that is in very severe cases.
Spinal stenosis is a type of spine disease and can take two forms; lumbar spinal stenosis and cervical stenosis. In the former, the lower back gives trouble since the nerve roots over there get compressed or choked and this radiates pain. Sciatic pain where numbness, tingling or pain shoots from the low back into the buttocks or legs especially with activity is also a result of this problem. In the majority of cases, the pain is bad and increases with walking and is reduced with sitting. This is known as claudication which maybe caused by poor circulation in legs. Treatment is only sought if the pain gets debilitating and hampers normal activities severely. Cervical stenosis is a form of spinal stenosis in the neck region and can become far more dangerous because it can compress the spinal cord itself and lead to weakness of the body and in extreme cases, to paralysis.
When the normal curve of the neck begins to straighten, the condition is called cervical kyphosis. This disease can progress to the level where the curve of the neck starts going in the opposite direction from its normal position. The causes of this disease may be ascribed to the wear and tear of degenerative discs wherein the vertebra begins to weaken. Traumatic injuries such as fractures or infections and diseases like osteoporosis as well as congenital conditions also cause this problem. Cervical lordosis is the inward curvature of the neck area in an abnormal way. While the cervical spine should have a typical lordotic curve, some people have an increased curvature whose existence may not be discovered for years. There are hardly any symptoms linked with this disease and only a small number of people may experience any pain.
A bulging disk is also related to spine diseases and occurs when a disc protrudes through the spine. A disc cushions the vertebrae of the spine and when it shifts out of its normal position it is called a bulging disc. The bulging disc normally affects the lower back but sometimes it may happen in the neck causing pain in the shoulders or arms.
Spine diseases can be treated if they are diagnosed in time.
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carl formby owns and operates http://www.cervicallordosispain.com Degenerative Lumbar Pain Surgery and Cervical Bulging Disk
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Article by Bakhru
In today’s world, stronger medicines – antibiotics, steroid preparations and hormonal condensates – are pumped into the human systems-.-in- the name of breakthrough in medicine which not only produce ugly side-effects but also lead to harmful suppression of the original disease in its simpler form. The nineteenth century witnessed the barbarous use of leeches, acids, alkalis, and strong potions which often caused untold harm to the patient more than the original malady. The modern age has seen the use of ointments, douches, nasal drops, throat paints, cough suppressants, ear and eye drops, sinus punctures and radium-therapy. These local applications are based on the assumption that some of the constitutional manifestations like eczema and ear discharges are but only local phenomena and, therefore, do not merit deep consideration in the matter of treatment. It is a matter of observation by any sincere and conscientious physician that in a child suffering from a thick green ear discharge, it is wiser to let the trouble alone than to tamper with it through local douches and washes. Its suppression leads to such a terrible internal turmoil that the child suffers pitifully and is ultimately forced to.phthisis. Dr Hering, one of the greatest medical scientists of our time, discovered the laws of cure by studying the natural direction of the flow of the disease forces in human beings. Thus, Hering’s laws of cure, as they are known, consider a disease as a subtle force which deranges the vital force of an organism, and suggest that the natural direction of the flow of disease force is from outer to inner and the right course, of disease cure is to direct the disease force from within to without. Similarly, the laws stipulate that the disease in the process of cure travels from above downwards and its symptoms return, during the course of medication, in the reverse order of their appearance in the natural disease form
The first law can be verified by observing the natural reaction of the body to the assault of the morbid force of measles. After a few days, the body, in its wisdom, throws the disease force onto the skin in the form of eruptions as the skin is the safest part, or else vital organs like lungs, heart or liver may be harmfully affected. We also know that the more abundant the eruptions, the safer it is for the patient as it saves him from the internal turmoil. Any attempt to reverse the natural direction of the disease proves to be detrimental to the patient and is not the right course of treatment. The reversal of the direction of the disease force is suppression. All physicians, at one time or another during their practice. have encountered the phenomenon of metastasis – change in the nature and seat of the original disease – like the involvement of the heart in the event of mismanagement of gout, flight of disease to meanings on the suppression of syphilitic ulcer, and chronic arthritis following the suppression of excessive menses in women.
We can, therefore, conclude from the foregoing discussion that the rational concept of cure is to treat in consonance with the natural laws, to use such remedial agents.as to exercise the subtle. natural force matching with the subtle disease force and to bring about cure in a simple, gentle and permanent manner.
Extending the above logic to the art of healing through magnets, it could be argued that the therapy satisfies all the scientific criteria of a rational cure. Firstly, the magnet works on the natural law of magnetism; it is a natural subtle force with healing properties. Secondly, the magnetic application cannot be considered as a local application like an ointment. as it affects the whole organism and not just the part on which it is laid. Once the magnetic equilibrium is re-established between various organs and functional processes, the cure effected is of a permanent nature and not short-lived unlike in most superficial remedial agents. However, in certain neglected and advanced incurable cases like those of ankylosing spondylitis, the magnet brings the desired succour by way of relief in pain, stiffness and swelling. It has been verified in clinical practice that the disease once cured through magnets does not return, though in some rare cases mild exacerbations may recur due to sudden emotional, climatic and dietetic irregularities. But these can be tackled with a few additional sittings with magnets. Thirdly, a magnet offers itself as one of the simplest medicinal tools hitherto discovered or invented by man. The method of application is easy – even a layman can use it in any disease – and the action of the magnet is so gentle that most persons do not perceive any sensation, while some sensitive patients only feel a tingling sensation. It is a boon in the treatment of children who are scared to death by bitter medicines and frightening injections. No harmful side. effects have been noticed or reported, though certain pleasant side-effects have been reported by a number of magnetotherapists from many countries. Finally, it could be emphatically asserted by any healer of this system that the application does not provoke any other diseases or complications. Hence it is safe in any disease.
Thus, we have a simple, safe, gentle and potent curative agent in a magnet which can provide a rational answer to the problems of diseases which have plagued mankind through the centuries.
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Article by Ethan Armitage
The main common characteristics of the rheumatic conditions are represented by inflammations, followed by a disability of one of the body’s supporting structures. The most affected by rheumatic diseases are the articulations, ligaments, bones, tendons and muscles that become painful, swollen and rigid. Some of the 100 types of rheumatic disorders may affect the other organs.
Some people generically call “arthritis” any kind of rheumatic problem. But, unlike the other conditions, arthritis only attacks the articulations. There are some rheumatic diseases that are considered disorders of connective tissues, while others are seen as auto immune.
Some rheumatic diseases are :
* – Rheumatic arthritis is a disease in which the synovium is swollen and very painful. The articulations hurt, become rigid and are severely damaged or taken out of use. The articulations of the hand of the feet are the most affected. Rheumatic arthritis is a symmetrical disease, which affects 1% of the population, only in the U.S.
* – Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the most frequent arthritis that affects children. Most of the symptoms are common to those of the adults, but there are others to be added such as rashes and fever
* – Osteoarthritis affects the cartilages and makes them wear away. It causes pain of the articulations, rigidity, and in case it touches the spine, disables it,the knees and hips, too. It is the most frequent form of arthritis and it affects over 21 millions of Americans
* – Systematic lupus erythematosus has a auto immune character. The healthy cells and tissues are damaged by the organism’s own means of protecting itself against infections. The inflammation produced by this disease attacks the skin, the articulations, the kidneys, the brain, the blood vessels, the heart and the lungs.
* – Spondyloarthopathies that mostly attack the spine have, as any common form of ankylosing spondylitis. The spine is followed by the shoulders, hips and knees, then the inflammation extends over the tendons and ligaments, which become painful and rigid. It mostly affects young people. Other example of spondyloarthopathy is Reiter’s syndrome, an infection of the bowel, the lower urinary tract and causes skin rashes, eye problems and mouth sores.
* – Fibromylagia has a chronic character and gives the articulations and the tissues that determine the bones to move, pain, rigidity, and localized sensitivity of the muscles and tendons. It especially affects the spine, shoulders, hips and neck and causes the patient insomnia and tiredness.
* – Scleroderma, or systematic sclerosis affects the skin, articulations and blood vessels, and, sometimes, internal organs. It is caused by an over increased quantity of collagen inside the body.
* – Polymylagia rheumatica is very painful and causes rigidity of the shoulders, hips, neck and lower back, especially in the morning. It affects tendons, muscles, ligaments and everything that surrounds the articulations. In time, it may degenerate into giant cell arthritis, a disorder that affects the arteries and generates weight loss, fever, swelling and weakness.
* – Gout is a type of arthritis generated by the deposits of uric acid crystals in the articulations. Has as main symptoms inflammation, swelling, and almost unbearable pain
* – Psoriatic arthritis affects only people with psoriasis. It mostly affects the fingers and toes’ articulations and it modifies the aspect of the nails. In case it touches the spine, back pain is added to the symptoms
* – Infectious arthritis is caused by viruses or bacteria. Two examples are gonococcal arthritis and parvovirus arthritis. The symptoms of arthritis often appear in Lyme disease. This disease is generated by bacterial infection that occurs after the bite of some ticks.
An early diagnosis is vital to prevent a serious damage.
* – Tendinitis is, as the name says, a disorder of the tendons. They become inflamed, painful and extremely sensitive and produce restriction of movement
* – Bursitis is produced by the swelling of the bursae, it generates sensitivity and pain and limits the movements of the close articulations
* – Polymyositis weakens and inflames the muscle. It may cause disability, in case it affects the entire body.
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Rheumatoid disease, rheumatism, and arthritis are usually used alternately to describe a sure joint condition; but, there is a small distinction between these three. Arthritis is simply category of rheumatoid diseases. Though there are totally different classes, all might cause stiffness, pain, swelling of the joints, and other body structures, such as tendons, muscles, bones, and ligaments. Rheumatoid diseases might conjointly have an effect on a lot of than one space of the body, as well as the interior organs. There are some related diseases which will involve connective tissues, while there are some that may develop as a result of of autoimmune disorder, which means the immune system attacks its healthy tissues and cells.
Who Treats this Disease?
This disease may be treated by physicians, healthcare suppliers, and different medical specialists. The involvement of physicians from different medical specialties could additionally be needed to treat this disease simultaneously. This multidisciplinary team approach is very important in managing the symptoms as well as the complications of a rheumatoid disease. A number of the most common medical professionals and specialists often concerned in the treatment of this disease are:
o Primary care physician;
o Orthopedic Surgeon;
o Physical Therapist;
o Occupational Therapist;
o and Nurses.
Who is suffering from this disease?
Anyone, at any race, gender, or age could be affected by this disease. However, bound sorts are a lot of common in sure demographics, including the subsequent:
o 70% of folks affected with rheumatoid arthritis, a certain kind of rheumatoid disease, are women;
o Elderly are additional full of Osteoarthritis, another type of rheumatoid disease;
o 2% of the U.S. population is stricken by Fibromyalgia;
o Men are additional littered with gout;
o Women are additional laid low with Scleroderma;
o Ladies are eight to ten times laid low with lupus than men;
o and Men are a lot of tormented by Ankylosing spondylitis.
What Causes this Disease?
Up until currently, the causes of this disease are still unknown. This is often perhaps as a result of the causes may vary relying on what kind of rheumatoid disease was diagnosed on the patient. But, medical researchers and specialists believe that the following play a big role in the development of this disease in an exceedingly person:
o lifestyle selections;
o family history and genetics;
o metabolic disturbances;
o neurogenic disturbances;
o stress and excessive wear on the joints;
o hormonal influence;
o and environmental triggers.
What are the symptoms of different sorts of this disease?
As a result of rheumatoid diseases return in different category, it’s quite onerous to spot the symptoms for each. However, general symptoms might embrace the subsequent:
o swelling in the joints;
o joint pain;
o joint stiffness in the early morning;
o tenderness or chronic pain in the joints;
o redness and heat in the joint area;
o restricted movement within the joints;
o and fatigue.
The signs and symptoms of rheumatoid diseases could be the same as other medical issues and conditions. So, it is advisable that you simply consult you physician or doctor for a diagnosis.
The present article is relaed to the observation made by the author in his two and half decades of clinical practice on the cure of the divergent inflammatory diseases such as Asthma, Arthritis, Tuberculosis, etc. by administering a single molecule/ medicine. Extensive literature and patent search could not present any scientific explanation for the phenomenon observed and reported. Preliminary research at the author’s clinic and lab has enabled the postulation and confirmation of a novel theory and immune pathway involving Histamine haemostasis referred to as the Rao’s Vicious Cycle. In this study the medicine used belongs to the category of allergies, a new mechanism is proposed for the action of mediators during the inflammation. It has been postulated that the histamine liberated from the mast cells is the key link among the divergent diseases. During inflammation, histamine is released at the inflammatory sites as predicted by Rao’s vicious cycle. The later refers to the proliferation of TH2 type of reaction and its dominance over TH1 reaction. In this method of cure known as Appa Hista, antihistamine antibodies, combat the histamine at the inflammatory sites and also block TH2 type of reaction, thus indirectly helping the TH1 type of reaction. The dual effect of Appa hista antibodies has been visualized in 1) Killing the intracellular organisms through TH1 type of reaction and; 2) Neutralizing the histamine at inflammation site at the same time blocking the excess TH2 type of reaction. Since Appa Hista directly attacks histamine where ever it is present, it may cure all inflammatory diseases.
The present investigation deals with the cure of some of the most stubborn problems such as paralytic stroke, arthritis, tuberculosis etc., by using histamine conjugated normal human immunoglobulin. Histamine is a chemical mediator and also the prime mediator of inflammation. It is a vasoactive amine, found long back and established as a chemical mediator of inflammation. This compound is essential for vascular permeability and allows the vessels to leak the protein rich exudate and cells to the site of inflammation. The latter is divided into two groups: 1) Acute inflammation and 2) Chronic inflammation. While chronic inflammation may originate as chronic itself, an acute inflammation, may, over a period of time become chronic. The inflammatory response is closely coupled with the process of healing or repair. A foreign body (agent) always wants to destroy the host tissue for its settlement, while, the host always tries to get rid of the agent as it is foreign. Thus, inflammation can be considered as a protective response of the host and serves to destroy, dilute or wall off the injurious agents, and, also as far as possible heal and reconstitute the tissues.
Normally, inflammation is an immunological (protective) phenomenon and, pain is a protective signal to get rid of the stimuli (causes). At times they become pathological and produce disease.1 Repair begins during the early phases of inflammation but reaches completion usually after the injurious influence has been neutralized. During repair the injured tissue is replaced by parenchymal (functional) cells or by filling of the defect with fibroblastic tissue (scarring) or most commonly by a combination of these two processes. The defense mechanism is such that the system tries itself best to give protection by innate immunity. Alternately, if the agent is a stronger one, then only the acquired immunity is triggered either by humoral immunity (present in body fluids) or by cell mediated immunity or by both. The humoral/cell mediated immunity is offered by several preformed or existing proteins like compliment and antibodies, or, by cells like macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils. When an agent initiates an injury, the defense mechanism is triggered by release of mediators. Rather than too few, there are a large number of mediators in the defense system.
Cells of the immune system:
The cells that are developed in the bone narrow mature and liberate into the blood stream. A few cells settle in the tissues and lympho reticular system to perform their immunological function. The cells in the blood are red blood cells (RBC) white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Red cells supply oxygen to all the systems. White blood cells defend body from foreign stimuli and platelets help in clotting.
The WBC is further divided into Granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. It is well known that granulocytes are further divided into polymorpho nuclear leucocytes, Eosinophils and Basophiles. Lymphocytes are divided into T cells, B cells and NK cells. Monocytes are referred to as monocytes in the blood and as macrophages and mast cells in the tissues.
Mediators are found in cells as well as in plasma. Mediators are classified into preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators. Preformed mediators always exist even in the absence of the inflammatory stimuli. These are histamine, serotonin, lysosomal enzymes which are generated by the cellular sources mast cells, platelets, neutrophils, macrophages etc. The newly synthesized mediators, on the other hand, are formed in the presence of an inflammatory stimulus. These are prostaglandins, leucoterines, and platelet activating factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide etc., generated from cellular sources such as leucocytes, platelets endothelium and macrophages.
Under the influence of an inflammatory stimulus certain proteins in the plasma like complement under go chain reactions releasing intermediary substances like C3a, C5a and C5b – 9. C3a is an anaphylotoxin attracting histamine to the site, while C5a attracts neutrophils to the site. C5b – 9b, on the other hand, are believed to create MACs (membrane activating complexes) and cause target cells lysis (destruction). A plasma protein known as Hegeman factor, on the other hand, activates, clotting/ kinin cascades resulting in blood clotting and pain.
Immune response (IR):
The response initiated by an antigenic stimulus in the cells and mediators in a host is known as immune response. As is well documented IR can be divided in to two types such as the humoral (antibody mediated immunity (AMI)) and the cellular (cell mediated immunity (CMI)). AMI refers to interaction of antigens with antibodies present in the plasma and in the interstitial fluids (extracellular), resulting in neutralization. CMI refers to the direct killing (lysis) of intracellular bacteria through various cytokines secreted by T lymphocytes.
The current state of understanding regarding immunological reactions can be summarized as follows. Briefly the I Anaphylactic, II Cytolytic and III Immune complex reactions eventually generate TH2 (T Helper cell sub set 2). The latter generate the IL4 IL5 and IL10 (interleukin cytokines) which take part in allergic reactions, basic healing and also provide opposition to the TH1 subset. TH1 subset forms in delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and includes the cytokines IL2, TNF and IFN contributing to intracellular killing.
Two decades of clinical practice in curing various inflammatory diseases and the possible common link between these is summarized in Table 1. The latter clearly points out the administering of the medicine for a primary disease such as Asthma which was found to have a beneficial affect on Arthritis, and so on. Thus, a single medicine normally used in treatment of allergies had resulted in cure of several inflammatory diseases which are hitherto being treated separately. Animal experimentation at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) confirmed the anti inflammatory properties of the medicine.2 This necessitated a re-look in to the fundamentals of cells, mediators and immunological response. Literature and patent search revealed that in 1994 a US patent was granted to Yoshi et al from Japan.
Subsequently relief by the treatment has been observed in the following inflammatory diseases;
(a) Rheumatic diseases: Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Seronegative arthropathies, including reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and various vasculitides.
(b) Nervous system: Paralysis (Cerebro vascular accident due to vasculitis), Encephalitis, Tuberculomas, multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy, peripheral neuritis, migraine, Guillian-Barr’e syndrome.
(c) Respiratory system: Bronchial asthma, TB, Drug resistant tuberculosis, and pulmonary mycotic conditions.
(d) Renal: Glomerulo nephritis, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome.
(e) Genitourinary system: Chronic UTI, Stress incontinence, chronic leucorrhoea, and infertility.
(f) Heart: Hypertension, Rheumatic heart diseases, (also with CCF, Choria) Congestive cardiac failure, Atherosclerosis. Global hypokinesia.
(g) Skin: Chronic venous (Sephanous) ulcers, psoriasis, Lepraneuritis, and Vitiligo (Early Stage).
(h) Eye/ ENT: Iridocyclitis, Uveitis, Retinal detachment, Glucoma, Vasomotorrhnitis, Epistaxis, Allergy, Miners disease.
(i) Gastrointestinal diseases: Peptic ulcer, IBS, Ulcerative colitis.
(j) Psychiatric: Stress related syndromes. Dementias.
(k) Infectious diseases: Cerebral Malaria, Filariasis, Fungal infections and DIC.
(l) Pains: Cancer pains, chronic pains, few cancers arrested.
(m) Endocrine disorders: Thyroid, Diabetes.
COMMON LINK AMONG INFLAMMATORY DISEASES
Reorganization of cells
In the present methodology, the cells are reorganised into cells presenting antigens, cells required in processing antigens and intermediary cells, and, cells found at the site of inflammation. Of particular importance is the role played by intermediaries such as mast cells and basophiles. As will be seen later these are essential for release of histamine, and therefore, key agents for initiating and maintaining the inflammation. It is thus imperative that any control on mast cells should control the inflammatory diseases.
mast cells4,5are bone marrow derived tissue resident cells, relatively large in diameter (10-15 mm) and heterogeneous in shape. Under optical microscope the mast cells reveal 50 to 200 densely packed granules in each cell, each granule in turn is bound to membrane. A typical granule of 0.1 to 0.4 mm contains relatively large amounts of histamine, heparin, TNF and other preformed inflammatory mediators. The surface of the each of the cells is coated with high affinity receptors ecoR1, which attracts IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells. Following the attachment of the IgE molecules on the mast cell surfaces, the granules start degranulating. Although mast cells are found in connective tissues through out the body, these are present in large numbers beneath the surface tissues such as skin, lung alveoli, gastrointestinal mucosa and nasal mucus membranes. Thus, mast cells are strategically positioned to interact with inhaled or ingested antigens.
Mechanism of Mediators:6
Histamine at the inflammatory site has a long life (30-60 mts), and, is stable as compared to most mediators derived from phospholipids and nitric oxide. As is well known histamine triggers all the mediators and vice versa. Therefore, in any physical injury such as trauma, cold or heat, the activation of already stored histamine from the mast cells is expected to play a dominant role.
Histamine receptors on lymphocytes:7,8,9
In the proposed protocol it has been postulated that histamine can trigger lymphocytes in releasing other mediators. This is possible only if there is histamine receptors present on the lymphocytes. This assumption has received a recent support from several researchers. Similarly, the action of T cells in the histamine homeostasis10 (self-regulating information feedback) is proposed to take place as illustrated in Fig. 1. An important point to note is that IL6, IL8 and TNF etc., present at the inflammatory site due to tissue injury are also capable of liberating histamine.
IgE B Cells:
The IL4 cytokine is expected to play a dominant role in sensitizing CD4 cells and through it the effector cells i.e. B cells and CD8 cells. Further, in a double pronged manner IL4 can directly sensitize an IgE B cell which in turn releases IgE and acts on mast cells to liberate histamine. The latter in turn goes to the inflammatory site and causes healing through TH2 type of reaction. In case the inflammation is larger, it may turn in to chronic due to liberation of cytokines IL4 IL6 TNF etc.11 These in turn, in a positive feed back cycle, trigger histamine release and aid in maintaining chronic inflammation. This vicious cycle of generation of histamine at the site of injury and its subsequent triggering of IgE B cells ( Histamine pathway II) and CD4 cells ( Histamine pathway I) is termed as Rao’s Vicious cycle. That is strong inflammation can turn into chronic inflammation by the continuous generation of excess histamine in repeated positive feed back cycles. Micro organisms may be exploiting this phenomenon in producing chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Rao’s Vicious Cycle and it’s interaction with three immunological pathways
As is well known, any immunological reaction operates through three different path ways as shown in Fig.2. The path way 1 is known as IgE / mast cell / mediator path way can be sub divided to reflect physiological and pathological conditions as path 1a and path 1b respectively. It can be noticed that in all the physiological conditions histamine is liberated and together with TH2 affect the cure. The pathological conditions of inflammation on the other hand may turn in to chronic inflammation due to the excessive generation of histamine in a cyclic manner as explained earlier by Rao’s vicious cycle.
Fig. 2 depicts the details of physiological and pathological path ways. The difference between the 3 path ways is in the sources of histamine and also in the intermediaries.
Evidently, the histamine at the inflammatory site together with TH2 cures the inflammation. Thus, histamine physiologically plays a role as type of switch for TH1 or TH2.
IgE/mast cell/mediator path way12 (Fig. 3a) depicts the physiological path way which sets TH2 type of reaction after an allergic inflammation, there by affecting cure. Fig. 3b depicts pathological path way where in the presence of local cytokines IL4, IL6, INF etc., at the inflammatory site trigger the release of excess histamine over and above that required for maintaining histamine homeostasis. This in turn triggers IgE B cells and in a cyclic manner contributes to release of more histamine making the inflammation chronic. This in brief is the Rao’s vicious cycle proposed to be applicable for chronic inflammatory conditions.
The IgG, IgM/Complement/neutrophil pathway as shown in Fig. 4, includes the pathological path 2b. Typically IgG / IgM immune complex interacts with complement, which releases C3a and C5a and bring histamine and neutrophilis into the site. The presence of IL4, IL6, IL8 etc. at the inflammatory site trigger histamine and in turn the Rao’s Vicious Cycle. The TH2 type of reaction, although, helps in healing process in physiological (2a) inflammation through the parenchymal cells, the excess of TH2 found in pathological inflammations can cause over healing, resulting in scaring and stiffening.
In the physiological path way 3a as shown in Fig. 5, theCD8 cells kill the intracellular organisms by TH1 type of reaction, and, the TH2 type of reaction set by histamine heals
through parenchymal cells. Pathological path 3b (T lymphocyte / lymphokine pathway) directly kills the intracellular organisms by TH1 reaction through the cytokines liberated by CD8 cells. However, the TH2 cytokines liberated from IgE B cells and the associated excess histamine through Rao’s Vicious cycle contribute to the chronic nature of inflammation. Thus, in spite of the killing of intracellular organism (TH1 action) the inflammation continues (by TH2 action which opposes TH1). The pain13, stress, and cancer cytokines are also the same as those that cause inflammation and, so can trigger Rao’s Vicious cycle.
Appa Hista refers to the proposed method of curing inflammation using anti- histamine antibodies while exploiting the fundamental phenomena of Rao’s Vicious cycle. It is by now clear that the histamine homeostasis in the body is disturbed during inflammation. Antigen administered in the physiological condition of inflammation reacts with IgE B cells generating the IgE and in turn through TH2 type of reactions affecting the cure. More serious is the pathological condition leading to chronic inflammation. Rao’s vicious cycle plays a major role in generating and maintaining histamine levels above those required for histamine homeostasis. It is interesting to note that the generation of excess histamine is found in acute and chronic inflammation. The cure therefore is to see that antibodies are generated to combat against histamine. In Appa Hista method, histamine conjugated normal human immunoglobulin is intramuscularly injected. It works like a vaccine. This most likely reaches all the lymph nodes and stimulates B cells to produce IgG antihistamine antibodies (also referred to as Appa Hista). The antibodies in turn reach the inflammatory site and neutralize the histamine i.e. it breaks the Rao’s vicious cycle, either directly or enhance the histamine binding ability of the plasma. The histamine binding/ diluting ability is as high as 30 times in normal individuals as compared to that of suffering from allergic inflammation in normal individuals.14
Appa Hista’s main advantage is that it neither interferes in primary histamine release nor causes any immuno suppression. During the past two decades of clinical practice, the author had cured couple of hundreds of patients of both sexes with age groups ranging from 10 to 60 years. The relief from inflammatory diseases found in most cases range from good to excellent (patent application status). The intensity of the disease is found to be reduced on the administration of the medicine along with the gradual increase in the time periods at which the medicine has to be re-administered. This may takes 3 weeks to 3 months depending up on the intensity of symptom. An interesting feature is that the patients felt totally comfortable during in between drug administration periods along with a general feeling of well being, which was not the case with steroids or any other drugs.
There are no side effects observed in the Appa Hista method of cure and applications. It is however found that the method is not very effective in the case of smokers, and alcoholics. From an economic view point the treatment is inexpensive as compared to current day methods used. Also, the drug, which is already bio-assayed and available in the market for last 30 years can be easily procured and administered.
A link is observed among the inflammatory diseases and it is identified as Rao’s vicious cycle. Histamine is present in human body in levels corresponding to that required to maintain histamine homeostasis. During inflammation, histamine is released at the- inflammatory sites as predicted by Rao’s vicious cycle. The later refers to the proliferation of TH2 type of reaction and its dominance over TH1 reaction. In the Appa Hista method of cure, antihistamine antibodies combat the histamine at the inflammatory sites and also block TH2 type of reaction, thus indirectly helping the TH1 type of reaction. The dual effect of Appa hista antibodies can be visualized in:
1) killing the intracellular organisms through TH1 type of reaction, and,
2) neutralizing the histamine at inflammation site at the same time blocking the excess TH2 type of reaction.
Since Appa Hista directly attacks histamine where ever it is present, can cure all inflammatory diseases.
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