Posts Tagged ‘cystitis in patient with ankylosing spondylitis’

postheadericon Knee Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee

Further information: Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most typically affects the small joints in your hands and feet. This form of arthritis is the most common and is found in the same areas as RA. It worsens over time and as with RA, there is no cure. RA tampers with the lining of the joints and causes swelling that is painful and can lead to joint deformity in the body. It begins by attacking the smaller joints of the body and progresses into the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. Most cases will see the condition affect both knees. Symptoms include joint pain, swelling, red and puffy hands, and fatigue.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

Further information: Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that causes the cushion layer between your bones, or cartilage to wear away. It is also called degenerative joint disease. Symptoms are similar to RA and develop in the same slow manner. They include pain, tenderness in the knee, stiffness when standing or walking, loss of flexibility, and grating sensations that can be heard when the knee joint is used.

Osteoarthritis in the knee begins with the gradual deterioration of cartilage. Without the protective cartilage, the bones begin to rub together, causing pain, loss of mobility, and deformity. It affects approximately 16 million people. The majority of arthritis cases involving the knee are osteoarthritic cases.

Causes

It is not always sure why arthritis of the knee develops. Most physicians believe that it is a combination of factors that can include muscle weakness, obesity, heredity, joint injury or stress, and aging. Cartilage in the knee begins to break down and leaves the bones of the knee rubbing against each other as you walk. Persons who work in a place that applies repetitive stress on the knees are at a high risk of developing this condition. Bone deformities increase the risk for RA of the knee since the joints are already malformed and contain defective cartilage. Having gout, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget’s disease of bone or septic arthritis can increase your risk of developing osteoarthritis.

Treatment

Depending on the level of pain and damage suffered by a patient, a physician will recommend a treatment regimen that will relieve symptoms. Some of the most common recommendations include avoiding activities that make the pain worse, ice the knee for 20 to 30 minutes throughout the day to reduce inflammation, use over the counter anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy.

Exercises can help increase range of motion and flexibility as well as help strengthen the muscles in the leg. Physical therapy and exercise are often effective in reducing pain and improving function. Working with a physical therapist to find exercises that promote function without risking further injury is effective for most patients. Many of the exercises used can be performed while sitting in a chair or standing in place. They are performed so that additional stress or weight is not placed on the knee joint. Water exercises are highly recommended along with the use of elastic bands.

Supportive devices like knee braces can be used. In most cases, the arthritis is centered on a single side of the knee, so braces are effective in providing stability to one side. Two different forms of braces are available. A support brace provides the aid the entire knee requires, where an up-loader brace shifts the pressure away from the specific part of the knee that is experiencing the pain. Shoes or inserts that are considered to be energy absorbing are found useful for some patients as well as walking devices like a cane.

The use of oral steroids and anti-inflammatory medicines help to reduce the amount of inflammation and pain felt in the knee. If over the counter medicines like ibuprofen or naproxen are not strong enough, prescription strength medicines are used. If oral medicine and physical therapy don’t help your knee enough, your doctor may consider giving you an injection with pain medicine. Hyaluronic acid is present in the knee, but injections of it can be used to protect the joint when the acid becomes thinner and can’t do it alone. These injections can provide more pain relief than oral medications lasting from six months to a year.

Surgery is the final option but may be required to relieve symptoms. Arthroscopy is performed through tiny cuts where damaged parts of the knee can be removed. Osteotomy is performed to reshape the bones in the knee and is only performed if one side of the knee is damaged. Arthroplasty is a replacement surgery where an artificial joint is used.

Notes

^ Arthritis Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Information on MedicineNet.com, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ Rheumatoid Arthritis – Mayoclinic.com, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ Osteoarthritis of the knee – familydoctor.org, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ What is Osteoarthritis Retrieved on 2010-02-08

^ How Osteoarthritis Affects Your Knee – WebMD.com, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ Osteoarthritis: Risk Factors – MayoClinic.com, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ Arthritis of the Knee – American Academy of Orthopaetic Surgeons, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

^ Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Treatment – Familydoctor.org, Retrieved on 2010-01-22.

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Musculoskeletal disorders: Arthropathies (M00-M19, 711-719)

Arthritis

(monoarthritis/

polyarthritis)

Inflammation

(Neutrophilia)

Infectious

Septic arthritis  Tuberculosis arthritis  Reactive arthritis (indirectly)

Noninfectious

Seronegative spondyloarthropathy: Reactive arthritis  Psoriatic arthritis  Ankylosing spondylitis

Rheumatoid arthritis: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis  Adult-onset Still’s disease  Felty’s syndrome

Crystal arthropathy: Gout  Chondrocalcinosis

Noninflammatory

Osteoarthritis: Heberden’s node  Bouchard’s nodes

Other

hemorrhage (Hemarthrosis)  pain (Arthralgia)  Osteophyte  Hypermobility  villonodular synovitis (Pigmented villonodular synovitis)  Joint stiffness

joint navs: anat, non-congenital arthropathies/deformities/dorsopathies/soft tissue arthropathy/congenital, eponymous signs, proc

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Inflammation

Acute

Plasma derived mediators

Bradykinin  complement (C3, C5a, MAC)  coagulation (Factor XII, Plasmin, Thrombin)

Cell derived mediators

preformed: Lysosome granules  vasoactive amines (Histamine, Serotonin)

synthesized on demand: cytokines (IFN-, IL-8, TNF-, IL-1)  eicosanoids (Leukotriene B4, Prostaglandins)  Nitric oxide  Kinins

Chronic

Macrophage  Epithelioid cell  Giant cell  Granuloma

Processes

Traditional: Rubor  Calor  Tumor  Dolor (pain)  Functio laesa

Modern: Acute-phase reaction/Fever  Vasodilation  Increased vascular permeability  Exudate  Leukocyte extravasation  Chemotaxis

Specific types

Nervous

CNS (Encephalitis, Myelitis)  Meningitis (Arachnoiditis)  PNS (Neuritis)  eye (Dacryoadenitis, Scleritis, Keratitis, Choroiditis, Retinitis, Chorioretinitis, Blepharitis, Conjunctivitis, Iritis, Uveitis)  ear (Otitis, Labyrinthitis, Mastoiditis)

Cardiovascular

Carditis (Endocarditis, Myocarditis, Pericarditis)  Vasculitis (Arteritis, Phlebitis, Capillaritis)

Respiratory

upper (Sinusitis, Rhinitis, Pharyngitis, Laryngitis)  lower (Tracheitis, Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonitis, Pleuritis)  Mediastinitis

Digestive

mouth (Stomatitis, Gingivitis, Gingivostomatitis, Glossitis, Tonsillitis, Sialadenitis/Parotitis, Cheilitis, Pulpitis, Gnathitis)  tract (Esophagitis, Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, Enteritis, Colitis, Enterocolitis, Duodenitis, Ileitis, Caecitis, Appendicitis, Proctitis)  accessory (Hepatitis, Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, Pancreatitis)  Peritonitis

Integumentary

Dermatitis (Folliculitis)  Cellulitis  Hidradenitis

Musculoskeletal

Arthritis  Dermatomyositis  soft tissue (Myositis, Synovitis/Tenosynovitis, Bursitis, Enthesitis, Fasciitis, Capsulitis, Epicondylitis, Tendinitis, Panniculitis)

Osteochondritis: Osteitis (Spondylitis, Periostitis)  Chondritis

Urinary

Nephritis (Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis)  Ureteritis  Cystitis  Urethritis

Reproductive

female: Oophoritis  Salpingitis  Endometritis  Parametritis  Cervicitis  Vaginitis  Vulvitis  Mastitis

male: Orchitis  Epididymitis  Prostatitis  Balanitis  Balanoposthitis

pregnancy/newborn: Chorioamnionitis  Omphalitis

Endocrine

Insulitis  Hypophysitis  Thyroiditis  Parathyroiditis  Adrenalitis

Lymphatic

Lymphangitis  Lymphadenitis

Categories: Aging-associated diseases | Arthritis | Inflammations | Rheumatology | Skeletal disorders

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